Thu. Jun 20th, 2024

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a key technology for intelligent transportation system providing different services in safety and entertainment applications. Routing in VANET encounters high mobility of nodes, heterogeneous node distribution and dynamic network topology. These characteristics of the VANET demand a routing protocol capable of inhibiting intermittent connectivity due to network fragmentation. The proposed work is a connectivity-aware intersection-based shortest path routing protocol (CISRP) for VANETs in an urban environment. The CISRP has been designed to look into the prevailing road conditions and route the packets in a less congestion and less link breakage path to avoid intermittent connectivity. The results evaluated show the enhanced performance of the CISRP protocol.

Cryptography techniques in VANETs can be divided into five categories:
 1. Based on the pseudonymous certificate; 
 2. Based on group signatures; 
 3. Based on symmetric cryptography;  
4. Based on identity-based cryptography (IBC); 
5. Based on hybrid methods.

1) Pseudonymous certificate based classification
The authentication schemes based on pseudonymous certificate mainly utilize public key infrastructure (PKI). 
2) Group signature based classification
Group signature is commonly used in VANETs to achieve vehicle anonymous. In Lin et al. proposed a privacy preserving authentication scheme based on group signature. 
3) Symmetric cryptography based classification
The symmetric cryptography based schemes are subcategorized into three groups. The first group utilizes message authentication code (MAC) to achieve message authentication. 
4) Identity-based cryptography based classification
To address the problem of certificate management, identity based cryptography (IBC) has been utilized in VANETs for authentication, which greatly increases the computation and communication efficiency. 
5) Hybrid methods based classification
Calandriello et al. Put forwarded a scheme combining pseudonym scheme with group signature, which generates pseudonyms on the fly.  

1. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are modern type of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for wireless communication among vehicles on road or vehicles and roadside units. These networks are dynamic in nature so routing protocols play a vital role in performance in such networks.
2. Many studies and researches have proposed protocols for these networks but there is not a single protocol, which can perform efficiently in every condition.. The existing algorithms are successful only in low traffic situations. Proactive routing protocol fails when topology changes rapidly and on information exchange stage. Reactive routing protocol fails to find whole network path due to network partition.
4. Position based routing protocols require physical location information of nodes on road. Topology based routing protocols are not suitable for VANETs due to their high mobility nature. So in this way many challenges are present in front of researchers to make a best suitable routing protocol for VANETs.

Our proposed scheme consists of six phases: initialization phase, vehicle registration phase, RSU registration phase, authentication and member secrets generate phase, anonymous identity generation and message signing phase, and message verification phase. Each phase in detail will be introduced as follows.
1. Initialization phase:
In the initialization phase, the root TRA choose an additive group of point G1 with order q, and P is a generator of G1. TRA generates the system private key sk = Z*q and calculates the system public key PK = sk .P. 
2. Vehicle registration phase:
When a new vehicle user Vi wants to join a VANET, he/she needs to register for the TRA first. After registration, the TPD of Vi must be initialized. 
3. RSU registration phase:
When an RSU Rj is deployed, Rj is required to register in TRA. 
4. Authentication and member secrets generate phase:
When a vehicle Vi enters into the communication range of Rj , it requests to join the subgroup of Rj . If Vi has joined this subgroup, and the authorized period is not expired, it does nothing.
5. Anonymous identity generation and message signing phase:
If a vehicle Vi wants to broadcast traffic-related messages to the nearby vehicle and j , these messages should be signed to meet authentication and conditional privacy-preserving. 


1. Message received by all nodes in very short time
2. These protocols are very scalable for medium to large size networks
3. These protocols have reduced the network congestion. 
4. These protocols have high packet delivery rate.
5. Maintain vehicle location information for better and fast routing.
6. It is very beneficial to reduce road accidents.
7. In has removed the flaws of reactive routing and proactive routing.
8. Need not to maintain all paths of network.
9. Link is established when required.
10. In these protocols route discovery is not required because all links are already stored in background.  These protocols have best end-to-end delivery on high load costs.


 Operating System           :   Linux
 Simulation Tool              :    NS2
 Documentation              : Ms-Office

 CPU type                                  :    Intel Pentium 4
 Clock speed                              :    3.0 GHz
 Ram size                                   :    512 MB
 Hard disk capacity                    :    80 GB
 Monitor type                             :    15 Inch color monitor
 Keyboard type                          :     Internet keyboard
 CD -drive type                          :     52xmax

E. B. Hamida and G. Chelius, “A line-based data dissemination protocol for wireless sensor networks with mobile sink, in Proc. IEEE ICC, May 2008, pp. 2201_2205.

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